Forging Metal – An Overview of the Process and Applications

Forging metal is an age-old technique where metal is shaped by compressive forces. Blacksmiths have been using this technique for centuries to create tools, weapons, and other objects. Nowadays, forging metal is still popularly used in various manufacturing industries like aerospace, automotive, & construction. In this blog post, we will explore the basics of forging metal, the different types of forging methods and their specific applications in various industries.

What is Forging Metal?

Forging metal is the process of shaping metal using compressive forces. The metal is first heated to a specific temperature, typically above its recrystallization temperature, and then subjected to compressive forces using a hammer or a press. This process alters the metal’s grain structure, making it stronger and more durable. Additionally, forging shapes metal with hammer blows. There are many types of forging metals. For example

What is Forging Temperature?

The forging temperature depends on the type of metal being forged and the desired outcome. Generally, the forging temperature should be above the metal’s recrystallization temperature but below its melting point. For example, Hastelloy C276 is typically forged at temperatures between 2250/1750ºF (1230/955ºC) depending on the carbon content. Forgings made at lower temperatures generally are more robust and have increased toughness and impact resistance.

Forging Process

Forging Shapes Metal through hammer blows

  • Forging is a manufacturing process, forging shapes metal through hammer blows.
  • The metal is heated to a temperature above its recrystallization temperature, which alters the grain structure of the metal.
  • The metal is then placed between dies, and tools are used to shape the metal.
  • The metal is then hammered or pressed into the desired shape.
  • Finally, after Forging Shape of the metal, it is cooled to room temperature, which allows the new grain structure to be set.
  • Forging can be performed using a variety of metals, including Hastelloy, Inconel, Incoloy, and Monel.

Types of Forging

There are three main types of forging

  • Open-Die Forging –  It involves shaping the metal between two flat dies, allowing for the creation of complex shapes.


  • Closed-Die Forging – It is also called impression-die forging, because it involves shaping the metal using a die that contains the desired shape.


  • Ring Rolling – It involves shaping a metal ring by rotating it between two rollers.


Cold Forging, Drop Forging, and Hot Forging are the other types of forgings.

Applications of Forging

Forging metal is used in various industries, including aerospace, automotive, and construction. Forged metal components are used in structural parts, aircraft engines, land anding gear. In the automotive sector, forged metal creates engine components, drivetrain components, and suspension parts. In construction, forged metal components are used in building structures, bridges, & pipelines.

Advantages of Forging

Forging has been used for centuries as an essential process in manufacturing and for a good reason. The advantages of forging are numerous, from increased strength and durability to improved grain structure and greater product control. Forging ensures a more homogeneous metal structure than other methods, resulting in better wear resistance and fatigue strength. Additionally, forging allows for more intricate designs and shapes to be produced, giving manufacturers more flexibility and creative opportunities. With its many benefits, it’s no surprise that forging continues to be a highly valued and widely used process across industries.


Forging metal is essential in various industries to create vital, durable, and complex components. By understanding the types of forging, the forging temperature, and the applications of this process, we can appreciate the precision that is put into creating the critical components that make up our modern world.

Forging Metal – An Overview of the Process and Applications

by Renine Metalloys time to read: 2 min